Share this
July 22, 2014

What percentage of a film crew is female?

Today I am releasing the results of a long-term project. For a while, I’ve been looking at the numbers behind female film crew members over the past 20 years.

The results are pretty shocking, and should hopefully serve as a wake up call to parts of the industry.  I don’t believe that the majority of the industry is fundamentally sexist or anti-women but when you look at these results, especially over time, it’s plain to see that something is wrong and it isn’t fixing itself.

Download the full report now, for free. This project was far too large to fit into a single blog post, so I’ve written it up as a PDF report. It spans 16 pages and breaks down the results in much more detail. The report is free and all you need to do to get it is sign up to my e-mail list.

I send out one e-mail every week or two, to highlight new articles on this blog around film data and statistics. You can unsubscribe anytime, I won’t sell or pass on your email address, there’s no spam… it’s just me.

The results in summary

I studied the 100 highest grossing films at the US Box Office for each year between 1994 and 2013 (a total of 2,000 films). Additionally, in order to see how a film’s genre affects gender employment, I also looked at the 100 highest grossing films for each genre.

In summary…

  • Women make up only 23% of crew members on the 2,000 highest grossing films of the past 20 years.
  • Only one of the top 100 films in 2013 has a female Composer.
  • In 2013, under 2% of Directors were female.
  • The only departments to have a majority of women are Make-up, Casting and Costume
  • Visual Effects is the largest department on most major movies and yet only has 17.5% women
  • Of all the departments, the Camera and Electrical department is the most male, with only 5% women
  • Musicals and Music-based films have the highest proportion of women in their crews (27%).
  • Sci-Fi and Action films have the smallest proportion of women (20% and 21% respectively).
  • The films with the highest percentage were “Mean Girls” and “The Sisterhood of the Travelling Pants” (42%).
  • The most male crews were “On Deadly Ground” and “Robots” (10% female).
  • There has been no improvement in the last 20 years. The percentage of female crew members has decreased between 1994 (22.7%) and 2013 (21.8%).
  • The three most significant creative roles (Writer, Producer and Director) have all seen the percentage of women fall.
  • The jobs performed by women have become more polarised. In jobs which are traditionally seen as more female (art, costume and make-up) the percentage of women has increased, whereas in the more technical fields (editing and visual effects) the percentage of women has fallen.

On average, women make up 22.6% of a film crew

On average, over the last 20 years, women have made up 22.6% of film crew members. The average for 2013 was actually lower, at 21.8%.

Female film crews overall percentage on Hollywood movies

By department

Of all the departments, the Camera and Electrical department is the most male, with only 5% women. The only departments to have a majority of women are Make-up, Casting and Costume. Visual Effects is the largest department on most major movies and yet only has 17.5% women.

Gender split in the crews of top grossing Hollywood movies

There is a clear pattern to which departments employ women. The data doesn’t give me any way of telling if this is through free choice of the female crew members or a consequence of sexist hiring practices.

Key creative roles

Whilst gender equality is important in all roles, it is especially relevant when looking at the key creative roles.  The positions of Writer, Producer and Director have the largest influence on the end product and therefore the representation of women on-screen.  They are also more likely to serve as visible female role models for aspiring filmmakers.

Over the last 20 years, the percentage of women in key creative roles has been poor: Directors (5%), Writers (11%) and Producers (20%).  The majority of key creative roles are overwhelmingly male, with the clear exception of Casting Directors and Costume Directors. Composers are only 2% female and only one of the top 100 films of 2013 had a female Composer.

Gender split on top grossing Hollywood movies

Which genres hire the most women?

In addition to my main study, I also researched the top 100 grossing films of each genre. Interestingly, the genres with the highest proportion of women in the crew are extremely similar to the genres that are enjoyed most by female film audiences.

Musicals and Music-based films have the highest proportion of women in their crews (both with 27% women) and Sci-Fi and Action films have the smallest proportion (20% and 21% respectively).

Female film crews by genre

In the last 20 years it’s got worse

When I started to see the results come together I was rather shocked by the averages.  I had guessed that women would be under-represented but not much such a large margin.  But the most shocking revelation was still to come.  I had assumed that due to progress being made in our wider society that the gender imbalance would soon resolve itself.

It has not. In fact, in 1994 the average percentage of women on a film crew was 22.7% and by 2013 it had actually shrunk slightly to 21.8%.

Female film crews on Hollywood films by year

Jobs for the girls

Not only is the average falling, but the jobs that women are getting are becoming increasingly polarized. The percentage of women has grown in Make-up, Art and Costume departments and decreased in the fields of editing and animation.

Gender split for major departments on top grossing Hollywood movies

The three most significant creative roles (Writer, Producer and Director) have all seen the percentage of women fall over the past 20 years.

Gender split for key creative roles on top grossing Hollywood movies

The data doesn’t tell us why this is happening but an obvious candidate would be the shift in the post-production fields to become more reliant on technology (traditionally a more male area).  That said, even if that were true, it would only explain, not defend, this shift.  Another possible reason could be increasingly sexist views in which jobs are seen as ‘male’ and which are seen as ‘female’.

To see a breakdown of these stats in much more detail, return to the top of the page and sign up for the full report.

The ‘most male’ and ‘most female’ film crews

Using my dataset of the top 2,000 grossing films of the past twenty years, I have created lists of the films that have had the highest proportion of women in the crew. I named this system The Fey-Seagal Scale after Tina Fey and Steven Seagal, who represent the two ends of the spectrum.

Tina Fey and Steven SeagalTina Fey wrote “Mean Girls”, which is the ‘most female’ film on my list and she is seen by many as a strong female role model in the entertainment industry. Steven Seagal stars in three of the twenty ‘most male’ films, as well as directing the ‘most male’ film “On Deadly Ground”, and in the past has been accused of sexual harassment on a number of occasions. The fitting nature of these two faces at either end of the scale amused me and so felt like an appropriate name.

Films highest on the Fey-Seagal scale - Female film crew research

Films lowest on the Fey-Seagal scale - Female film crew research

Does any of this matter?

There are many reasons why the under-representation of women in the film industry could be seen as a problem. These include female crew members finding it harder to get hired/paid, employers selecting workers from a pool that is half the size it should be, fewer female role models for aspiring creatives and, of course, justice/ equality/ fairness.

Another possible problem is a weaker female perspective in stories and characters. Last year on this blog I investigated the question “Do female audiences prefer to watch films made by female filmmakers?”

I shan’t spoil the outcome in this article but you can see the results at stephenfollows.com/do-women-prefer-films-made-by-female-filmmakers.

Voices from the industry on female film crew numbers

Before publishing, I sent these results out to a few industry professionals to gauge their reaction. Universally, all respondents had the same shocked response I did. Here are just a few…

Stephen’s research has uncovered and highlighted a shocking situation. In spite of efforts to achieve greater gender balance within the industry, especially in these busier times, the reality seems to be that it’s getting worse, not better. These statistics must propel industry and inform government policy to increase the pursuit of proper diversity in the workforce- Iain Smith, Producer (“24”, “Wanted” ,”The Fifth Element”)

We need and deserve a film culture that reflects the diversity of audiences that exist and that won’t be forthcoming until the people who make films and contribute to their delivery reflect that diversity. Like a lot of complicated issues I think that what we need is a series of quite complicated solutions that address the problem from the top to the bottom, a series of coordinated and thoughtful interventions that enable change to occur. Until then we won’t have the role models or range of stories told that we need.- Catharine Des Forges, Director, Independent Cinema Office

This document is amazing. The figures make for a wake-up call to the industry and to film schools throughout the world. We have to ask ourselves- what can we do to change this picture?- Paul Thompson, Associate Professor, Dept of Film and Television,NYU. Former Head of Film and Television, AFTRS, Sydney, Australia

We have seen that this situation is similar throughout Europe and reflects the urgent need for associations such as ours to devise combined measures to counter inequality: be it through targeted training, promoting the work of women in the industry, carrying out more comprehensive research to show just how imbalanced the situation is and drafting policy proposals at national and pan-European levels.- Francine H. Raveney, Executive Director of the European Women’s Audiovisual Network

Firstly, yes, these statistics are damning. Representing an organisation that is educating and training a new generation of professionals working across the creative industries, I’m proud of the fact that 46% of our students on BA and MA programmes enrolling this year are female, and hopefully that’s some indication of this situation improving in the future. I hope also that the revolution happening in production processes, enabled by digital technologies, which I think is only just beginning to tell, will be a catalyst in this change – as access, use, and exploitation is increasingly democratised.- Jonny Persey, Chief Executive, Met Film School

These are disheartening statistics, but I don’t think the way talent was found in the past is the way it will be found going forward. I do think women are reserved about putting their voice out there and demonstrating their talents in a public way. This has to change and part of the mindset change for all working in the industry is to stop waiting to be picked, stop hiding only behind your for hire work, stop being invisible. Step forward, pick up the ‘mic’ that is the internet and show us who you are, what you know, what you can do and how it helps the industry. Believe me, people who can change your life are watching this space. Pick yourself and others will follow.- Sheri Candler, Marketing and Publicity Guru

It’s integral that organisations in this industry are proactive about the issue of the number of women in film production – at Sheffield Docfest we are always aware of addressing gender equality in terms of our film programme, our speaker programme and also for the producers selected in pitching initiatives at the festival. This year at Sheffield Doc/Fest over 50% of the applications to our flagship market event the MeetMarket – where filmmakers pitch to commissioners and buyers – were female. From that, the percentage of female filmmakers selected to pitch projects in our market was also around 50%. We are very proud of our commitment to helping female documentary makers in the industry. In documentary, there are more female producers than there are directors and it would be good to see some action on getting more female directors in the industry. Hopefully the statistics collected recently will trigger some positive action in this area. We believe women should be treated as equal partners in the creative process of filmmaking – across directing, producing, editing, camera, sound and all other roles of production. It’s also about leading women in the industry standing up as great role models – there are many stand out talented women in the documentary industry and that includes commissioning editors as well as film makers – we are very keen to see an increased number of women in the documentary industry and plan to continue to make a positive contribution to that effort by being diligent about female representation in all our programmes.- Heather Croall, Festival Director, Sheffield Doc/Fest

Epilogue

My data sources, methodology and limitations of this research are detailed in the full report: for brevity’s sake I have decided to leave them out of this article. If you’re interested in seeing further results, or understanding how I carried out this research then please download the full PDF report as detailed at the top of this article.

I’m grateful to everyone who has supported my work and helped my in my journeys through film data.  Not least Sophie Lifschutz without whom this blog would be far less readable and Alyssa Thorne who may be responsible for you reading it in the first place.

Female film crew research

Share this

35 Responses

  1. Brian Brenchley July 25, 2014 at 5:39 am #

    I don’t want to be an ass, but your assertion that the problem is getting worse is pretty hyperbolic. Sure women are down 0.9% from 1994, but they’re UP 0.1% from 1997. If you look at the numbers across the years, it has basically stayed exactly the same from year to year with an ever-so slight fluctuation centered around about 22.5%. Following the pattern of previous years, 2015 could very easily go up a point or two, completely invalidating your point. I’m not trying to invalidate your argument, but if you want this to be taken seriously I think you really need to be careful about over dramatizing the facts.

    • Stephen Follows July 25, 2014 at 11:32 am #

      Brian, Fair point; that particular number is arbitrary. However, my point about it getting worse is not really rooted in that figure. I think the polarisation of genders within crew roles is an issue. Also, the percentage of female directors is falling (see BFI stats, my stats above, et al) which underlines an overall trend which suggests that gender equality in the film industry is getting worse, not better.

      • Dea Cantu July 28, 2015 at 5:48 pm #

        I am a woman who has worked in the film industry for 25 years. I am a Script Supervisor. A job that is usually performed by a woman and was not even mentioned in this article. Neither was Production or the Office which have a significant amount of women. Stephen Follows may not have wanted to include these departments as they are administrative and not considered “creative.”
        I can only speak anecdotally, but I have definitely seen an increase in women on the set, especially in Grip and Electric Depts.
        Having said that there may be fewer women in the industry because of the working conditions and not due to some kind of sexist agenda. A movie set can be comparable to a construction site. Making a movie is not unlike building a house. Many times we work outside in all kinds of weather. The hours are grueling – minimum of 13-hour days and frequently Friday goes deep into Saturday morning.
        Not surprising, this industry is very hard on relationships as it is all-consuming. Risking a huge generalization that woman are more family-oriented, many women simply may not want to work in this environment.
        Now I am happily married with two children, but I am a real exception. And both my husband and I have made sacrifices in our careers for the sake of our family.
        Follows poses an interesting question, but I think it more complicated than simple bias.

  2. hipcinema July 26, 2014 at 2:50 pm #

    I think we have to look at the learned culture of film. Educational film programs at the BA and MFA level are still mostly staffed by white men. Then we have to look at race. Most film programs, unless you look at historically black colleges and universities, are overwhelmingly white. If educators accept the segregated and male heavy world of filmmaking, how can we expect to see the Industry to be any different? If film students learned in a diverse environment, and saw teachers of all genders and cultures, they would be more likely to model diversity, inclusion and equality when they work in the film business.

  3. Jendra Jarnagin July 28, 2014 at 1:50 pm #

    I am a female cinematographer, (and I was a union electrician as a side job for many years) and I graduated from NYU film school in 1996. As far as I can recall, my classmates seemed nearly 50% female. (I don’t have the actual numbers.) I don’t feel gender percentages in film school enrollment is an accurate indicator of things moving in a positive direction. It’s when you get out of school and have to carve out a place for yourself in the freelance industry over many years that most people fall away. It takes a lot of perseverance, business savvy, (which is appalling not taught in college) and self promotion to survive and thrive as a freelancer. It would seem to me if you look at enrollment in the top film schools vs. people who have become established professionals, 10 years out of school, you are going to see a huge gender disparity in who has been able to make it in the industry.

    • Susan Brand February 27, 2015 at 10:31 am #

      Excellent answer. I was at the UKs National Film and Television School 20 years ago. 50% of students were female with black and ethnic minorities represented in nearly every department. I don’t think the schools are at fault. Nowadays they have started to teach entrepreneurship which as you say is vital. All three of my Afro-Caribbean peers have now left the industry.

  4. Adrian May 13, 2015 at 11:48 am #

    You’re a dope on a rope. Maybe women like to have choices and they choose to work in the fields they are in. 5 times as many young men currently commit suicide as women. Shocking ! Do you advocate we push and stress women more so we get a fairer balance? What about nursing? Should we positively discriminate in favour of men and take those less able to do the job. Stop all this hysterical gender bias nonsense. Let people find their way and what they are good at. End discrimination but not by using an rqually biased process.

    • Stephen Follows May 13, 2015 at 12:26 pm #

      Adrian,

      You’re right that a complete 50:50 gender split is not automatically better than any other split. The real issue here is not in-and-of-itself about equal employment but one of equal opportunities. The stats on employment should be compared against the stats on what percentage of women want to work in film. If in fact, the gender split in the industry matches the gender split of those wanting to get in film, then that’s great.

      But that doesn’t seem to be the case. It seems that women do have a harder time than men in getting to where they want to in the film industry. I looked at this last year (stephenfollows.com/do-women-have-a-harder-time-in-film-than-men-2014-survey) and also heard from many people trying to get ahead in the industry.

      In an ideal world we would be able to objectively measure the ‘demand to be in the film industry’ and then check that against employment. Sadly, this isn’t possible so we’re left with imperfect measures.

      Thanks for your thoughts,
      Stephen

  5. anmastuchow.science September 9, 2015 at 7:43 am #

    Depressing trend but on the filmmaking degree course I am on about a third plus of all roles are female students and not just the stated norms, so things may be on change? Sadly in the last year, two of my worst experiences on short film sets were at hands of women – one a producer and other an AD, both of whom made the whole crew’s life a misery, but maybe that was just my bad luck!.

  6. Angus Brownfield September 20, 2015 at 4:45 am #

    Just watched SLOW WEST, a joint UK – New Zealand production released this year, and many women in technical and administrative positions–legal, financial, music, editing, publicity. Even wranglers and drivers. Have no idea why, but after reading yours, above, I took a look. You should, too.

  7. john January 14, 2016 at 8:41 am #

    I can’t seem to find the PDF report. Where is the link?

Trackbacks/Pingbacks

  1. So geht Datenjournalismus: Wie sind die Jobs im Film nach Geschlecht verteilt? (krass ungleich) stephenfollows.com/gender-of-f… | Stromabnehmer - July 23, 2014

    […] ← Photo: yassitsch: Kantinenschmaus #kantine #steak (hier: Finanz Informatik) http://www.kantinenvergleich.de/post/… So geht Datenjournalismus: Wie sind die Jobs im Film nach Geschlecht verteilt? (krass ungleich) stephenfollows.com/gender-of-f… […]

  2. What percentage of a film crew is female? | Med... - July 23, 2014

    […] Gender in film crews reports from Stephen Follows.studied the 100 highest grossing films at the US Box Office for each year between 1994 and 2013 (a total of 2,000 films).  […]

  3. What percentage of a film crew is female? | Wom... - July 23, 2014

    […] Gender in film crews reports from Stephen Follows.studied the 100 highest grossing films at the US Box Office for each year between 1994 and 2013 (a total of 2,000 films).  […]

  4. Dear July // 10 | Lus bit of Everything - July 23, 2014

    […] dass nur 5 % der 2000 erfolgreichsten Filme der letzten 20 Jahre Frauen als Regisseurinnen hatten (mehr Zahlen dazu sind zum Beispiel hier zu finden), dann macht mich das traurig, weil ich merke, wie selten Frauen Geschichten auf ihre Art in den […]

  5. Macho-Branche Hollywood: Männer führen Regie, Frauen machen das Make-Up - Nachrichten Heute Deutschland - July 26, 2014

    […] Filme der US-Kinocharts vorgenommen – also insgesamt 2000 Produktionen – und die Geschlechterverteilung der Filmcrews analysiert. Das Ergebnis: Nur 23 Prozent der Beteiligten waren weiblich. Ein Aufwärtstrend ist […]

  6. Who dominates UK film distribution? | Stephen Follows - August 4, 2014

    […] time, I launched my ‘Gender in Film Crews’ report. It took over page 3 of The Guardian (“Phoar, look at the stats on that!”) and was […]

  7. What percentage of a British film crew is female? | Stephen Follows - August 22, 2014

    […] What percentage of a film crew is female? […]

  8. In television directing still a boys club | ACLU of Southern California - September 23, 2014

    […] shown that what’s true for directors is true for behind-the-camera jobs more broadly. One report recently showed that women make up only 23 percent of film crews, and only 2 percent of directors […]

  9. Women Television Directors - September 24, 2014

    […] have shown that what’s true for directors is true for behind-the-camera jobs more broadly. One report recently showed that women make up only 23 percent of film crews, and only 2 percent of directors […]

  10. The Twilight Saga Launches New Feminist Project—Wait, Really? Twilight? | ShoutOut! JMU - October 5, 2014

    […] the entertainment business is that women are notoriously underrepresented in the industry. In a study that looked at the 100 highest grossing films at the US Box Office for each year between 1994 and 2013 found that Women make up only 23% of crew members on the 2,000 […]

  11. Women in the Film Industry. | Emily Steele - October 15, 2014

    […] only 16% of all Directors, Producers, Cinematographers and Editors are women. Furthermore, Stephen Follows investigated the percentage of women in film crews in July 2014, discovering that the number of […]

  12. Identifying Online Resources | taraolearymedia - November 30, 2014

    […] https://stephenfollows.com/gender-of-film-crews/ […]

  13. Online Secondary Research- More Statistics | taraolearymedia - December 7, 2014

    […] What percentage of a film crew is female? (Follows, 2014) […]

  14. Online Secondary Research- Feminist Filmmaking | taraolearymedia - December 7, 2014

    […] * Source: British producer and writer Stephen Follows’ July 2014 report  […]

  15. Online Secondary Research- More Statistics | Cut down version of taraolearymedia blog - January 11, 2015

    […] S. (2014). What percentage of a film crew is female?. [online] Stephen Follows. Available at: https://stephenfollows.com/gender-of-film-crews/ [Accessed 7 Dec. […]

  16. Οι Γυναίκες στις Ταινίες | Over the Place - May 12, 2015

    […] έρευνα που έχω διαβάσει και διεξήγαγε ο Stephen Follows, «Gender of Film Crews«, απέφερε τα εξής […]

  17. FILM: Leeds feminist film collectives celebrate 40 years of activism - Journalism at Leeds Trinity University - May 15, 2015

    […] to research completed by writer and producer Stephen Follows, women make up only 23 per cent of crew members. […]

  18. Are male leads in romantic films older than their female co-stars? | Stephen Follows - June 1, 2015

    […] extensively in the past about the under-representation of women in the industry (here, here, here and here) so it will come as no surprise to regular readers to learn that 88% of the films I studied […]

  19. New Statesman piece: the unspoken glass ceiling of the film industry | Beth Lambert - June 10, 2015

    […] light of a new report which found that women directed only 5 per cent of the top 2,000 US box office hits in the past 20 […]

  20. Film Review: Buttercup Bill (Produced By Women Crew) - ALT MagazineALT Magazine - September 3, 2015

    […] that the number of women working in prominent roles within the film industry is startlingly low, hearing about Buttercup Bill, produced by Blonde to Black Pictures – Sadie Frost’s […]

  21. Girls On Film And Why I Want To Be The Hero | moviescramble - October 26, 2015

    […] Earlier this month, Variety magazine reported that only 12 % of lead protagonists in 2014’s top grossing films were women (the Centre for the Study of Women in Television and Film). Think that’s bad? The figure was 15% in 2013 – it ain’t getting better. Between 2009 and 2013, only 26.2% of the crew on British films were female according to a report by British producer and writer, Stephen Follows. […]

  22. JHU Politik - Win Some, Lose Some: Diversity at the 2016 Oscars - March 7, 2016

    […] because women are fairly underrepresented in the technical aspects of film – only about 23% of film crews are […]

  23. Changing the portrayal of women in film means getting more women behind the lens – Raw Story… | Meek Voices - June 10, 2016

    […] Recent figures from the film industry bear this out: as film data researcher Stephen Follows said earlier this month: […]

Leave a Reply